Constellium Reports Third Quarter 2020 Results

Tuesday, 27. October 2020 11:00

PARIS, Oct. 27, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Constellium SE (NYSE: CSTM) today reported results for the third quarter ended September 30, 2020.

For the third quarter of 2020:

  • Shipments of 354 thousand metric tons, down 11% compared to Q3 2019
  • Revenue of €1.2 billion, down 20% compared to Q3 2019
  • Net income of €20 million compared to net income of €1 million in Q3 2019
  • Adjusted EBITDA of €126 million, down 9% compared to Q3 2019
  • Cash from Operations of €111 million and Free Cash Flow of €75 million

For the first nine months of 2020:

  • Shipments of 1.1 million metric tons, down 14% compared to YTD 2019
  • Revenue of €3.6 billion, down 20% compared to YTD 2019
  • Net loss of €43 million compared to net income of €42 million in YTD 2019
  • Adjusted EBITDA of €354 million, down 20% compared to YTD 2019
  • Cash from Operations of €263 million and Free Cash Flow of €129 million
  • Net debt / LTM Adjusted EBITDA of 4.3x as of September 30, 2020

Jean-Marc Germain, Constellium’s Chief Executive Officer said, "I am very proud of our third quarter results, including our Free Cash Flow performance of €75 million in the quarter. Packaging & Automotive Rolled Products reported record quarterly Adjusted EBITDA. Aerospace & Transportation maintained a strong focus on costs in the face of difficult market conditions. Automotive Structures & Industry benefited from better-than-expected market conditions and improved operational performance in Automotive Structures. These results further demonstrate the benefits of our end market diversification and our intense focus on costs."

Mr. Germain continued, "Based on our current outlook, we expect Adjusted EBITDA of €450 million to €460 million and Free Cash Flow generation of €100 million to €150 million in 2020."

  • Group Summary
  Q3
2020
 Q3
2019
 Var. YTD
2020
 YTD
2019
 Var. 
Shipments (k metric tons) 354 395 (11)%1,057 1,221 (14)%
Revenue (€ millions) 1,172 1,461 (20)%3,640 4,535 (20)%
Net income / (loss) (€ millions) 20 1 n.m. (43)42 n.m. 
Adjusted EBITDA (€ millions) 126 139 (9)%354 441 (20)%
Adjusted EBITDA per metric ton (€) 355 351 1%335 361 (7)%

The difference between the sum of reported segment revenue and total group revenue includes revenue from certain non-core activities and inter-segment eliminations. The difference between the sum of reported segment Adjusted EBITDA and the Group Adjusted EBITDA is related to Holdings and Corporate.

For the third quarter of 2020, shipments of 354 thousand metric tons decreased 11% compared to the third quarter of 2019 due to lower shipments in all three segments. Revenue of €1.2 billion decreased 20% compared to the third quarter of 2019 due to lower shipments and lower metal prices. Net income of €20 million compared to net income of €1 million in the third quarter of 2019. Adjusted EBITDA of €126 million decreased 9% compared to the third quarter of 2019 due to weaker results in the Aerospace and Transportation segment.

For the first nine months of 2020, shipments of 1.1 million metric tons decreased 14% compared to the first nine months of 2019 due to lower shipments in all three segments. Revenue of €3.6 billion decreased 20% compared to the first nine months of 2019 primarily due to lower shipments and lower metal prices partially offset by improved price and mix. Net loss of €43 million compared to a net income of €42 million in the first nine months of 2019. Adjusted EBITDA of €354 million decreased 20% compared to the first nine months of 2019 due to weaker results in the Aerospace and Transportation and the Automotive Structures and Industry segments.

  • Results by Segment
  • Packaging and Automotive Rolled Products (P&ARP)
  Q3
2020
 Q3
2019
 Var. YTD
2020
 YTD
2019
 Var. 
Shipments (k metric tons) 258 277 (7)%748 842 (11)%
Revenue (€ millions) 672 789 (15)%1,989 2,438 (18)%
Adjusted EBITDA (€ millions) 85 72 20%209 210 0%
Adjusted EBITDA per metric ton (€) 332 259 28%280 250 12%

For the third quarter of 2020, Adjusted EBITDA increased 20% compared to the third quarter of 2019 primarily due to strong cost control, partially offset by lower shipments. Shipments of 258 thousand metric tons decreased 7% compared to the third quarter of 2019 due to lower shipments of packaging and specialty products. Revenue of €672 million decreased 15% compared to the third quarter of 2019, primarily due to lower metal prices and lower shipments.

For the first nine months of 2020, Adjusted EBITDA was comparable to the first nine months of 2019 due to strong cost control, offset by lower shipments. Shipments of 748 thousand metric tons decreased 11% compared to the first nine months of 2019 due to lower shipments across packaging, automotive and specialty products. Revenue of €2.0 billion decreased 18% compared to the first nine months of 2019, primarily due to lower shipments and lower metal prices.

  • Aerospace and Transportation (A&T)
  Q3
2020
 Q3
2019
 Var. YTD
2020
 YTD
2019
 Var. 
Shipments (k metric tons) 36 57 (37)%140 186 (25)%
Revenue (€ millions) 202 351 (43)%811 1,112 (27)%
Adjusted EBITDA (€ millions) 10 43 (77)%93 159 (41)%
Adjusted EBITDA per metric ton (€) 275 740 (63)%666 854 (22)%

For the third quarter of 2020, Adjusted EBITDA decreased 77% compared to the third quarter of 2019 primarily due to lower shipments due to continued challenging market conditions from the COVID-19 pandemic, partially offset by strong cost control. Shipments of 36 thousand metric tons decreased 37% compared to the third quarter of 2019 due to lower shipments of aerospace and TID products. Revenue of €202 million decreased 43% compared to the third quarter of 2019 due to lower shipments and lower metal prices.

For the first nine months of 2020, Adjusted EBITDA decreased 41% compared to the first nine months of 2019 primarily due to lower shipments, partially offset by strong cost control and improved price and mix. Shipments of 140 thousand metric tons decreased 25% compared to the first nine months of 2019 due to lower shipments of aerospace and TID products. Revenue of €811 million decreased 27% compared to the first nine months of 2019 due to lower shipments and lower metal prices, partially offset by improved price and mix.

  • Automotive Structures and Industry (AS&I)
  Q3
2020
 Q3
2019
 Var. YTD
2020
 YTD
2019
 Var. 
Shipments (k metric tons) 60 61 (3)%169 193 (13)%
Revenue (€ millions) 304 336 (9)%868 1,027 (15)%
Adjusted EBITDA (€ millions) 33 26 25%66 85 (23)%
Adjusted EBITDA per metric ton (€) 551 428 29%389 439 (11)%

For the third quarter of 2020, Adjusted EBITDA increased 25% compared to the third quarter of 2019 due to strong cost control. Shipments of 60 thousand metric tons decreased 3% compared to the third quarter of 2019 on lower shipments of Industry products. Revenue of €304 million decreased 9% compared to the third quarter of 2019 primarily due to lower metal prices and lower shipments.

For the first nine months of 2020, Adjusted EBITDA decreased 23% compared to the first nine months of 2019 primarily due to lower shipments, partially offset by strong cost control. Shipments of 169 thousand metric tons decreased 13% compared to the first nine months of 2019 on lower shipments of automotive and industry products. Revenue of €868 million decreased 15% compared to the first nine months of 2019 due to lower shipments and lower metal prices.

  • Net Income

For the third quarter of 2020, net income of €20 million compared to net income of €1 million in the third quarter of last year. The change in net income is primarily related to a favorable change in gains and losses on derivatives related to our commodity hedging positions, reduced selling and administrative expenses and lower finance costs, partially offset by lower gross profit.

For the first nine months of 2020, a net loss of €43 million compared to net income of €42 million in the first nine months of last year. The change is primarily related to lower gross profit and an unfavorable change in gains and losses on derivatives related to our commodity hedging positions, partially offset by a change in income taxes and reduced selling and administrative expenses.

  • Cash Flow

Free Cash Flow was €129 million for the first nine months of 2020 compared to €157 million in the same period of the prior year. The change was primarily due to weaker Adjusted EBITDA and less of a benefit from trade working capital, partially offset by lower capital expenditures, interest expense, and income taxes.

Cash flows from operating activities were €263 million for the first nine months of 2020 compared to cash flows from operating activities of €340 million in the same period of the prior year. Constellium decreased factored receivables by €76 million for the first nine months compared to an increase of €19 million in the same period of the prior year.

Cash flows used in investing activities were €133 million for the first nine months of 2020 compared to cash flows used in investing activities of €265 million in the same period of the prior year. Capital spending was lower in 2020 to reflect market conditions. The first nine months of 2019 included a net €83 million outflow related to the acquisition of our partner’s 49% interest in the Bowling Green joint venture.

Cash flows from financing activities were €122 million for the first nine months of 2020 compared to cash flows used in financing activities of €90 million in the same period of the prior year. In the first nine months of 2020, Constellium raised $325 million of 5.625% Senior Notes due 2028, using a portion of the proceeds to redeem the remaining balance of the 4.625% Senior Notes due 2021, and entered into a €180 million loan partially guaranteed by the French State and a CHF 20 million facility partially guaranteed by the Swiss Government. The first nine months of 2019 included a €54 million lease redemption associated with the acquisition of Bowling Green and a €100 million partial redemption of the 4.625% Senior Notes due 2021.

  • Liquidity and Net Debt

Liquidity at September 30, 2020 was €1,018 million, comprised of €432 million of cash and cash equivalents and €586 million available under our committed lending facilities and factoring arrangements. Liquidity at September 30, 2020 includes the undrawn $166 million Delayed Draw Term Loan, which can be drawn until May 1, 2021.

Net debt was €2,050 million at September 30, 2020 compared to €2,183 million at December 31, 2019.

  • Outlook

Based on our current outlook, we expect Adjusted EBITDA in a range of €450 million to €460 million in 2020.

We are not able to provide a reconciliation of this Adjusted EBITDA guidance to net income, the comparable GAAP measure, because certain items that are excluded from Adjusted EBITDA cannot be reasonably predicted or are not in our control. In particular, we are unable to forecast the timing or magnitude of realized and unrealized gains and losses on derivative instruments, metal lag, impairment or restructuring charges, or taxes without unreasonable efforts, and these items could significantly impact, either individually or in the aggregate, net income in the future.

  • Forward-looking statements

Certain statements contained in this press release may constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. This press release may contain “forward-looking statements” with respect to our business, results of operations and financial condition, and our expectations or beliefs concerning future events and conditions. You can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as, but not limited to, “believes,” “expects,” “may,” “should,” “approximately,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “intends,” “plans,” “targets,” likely,” “will,” “would,” “could” and similar expressions (or the negative of these terminologies or expressions). All forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties. Many risks and uncertainties are inherent in our industry and markets, while others are more specific to our business and operations. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to: market competition; economic downturn; disruption to business operations, including the length and magnitude of disruption resulting from the global COVID-19 pandemic; the inability to meet customer demand and quality requirements; the loss of key customers, suppliers or other business relationships; the capacity and effectiveness of our hedging policy activities; the loss of key employees; levels of indebtedness which could limit our operating flexibility and opportunities; and other risk factors set forth under the heading “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 20-F, and as described from time to time in subsequent reports filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. The occurrence of the events described and the achievement of the expected results depend on many events, some or all of which are not predictable or within our control. Consequently, actual results may differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained in this press release. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

  • About Constellium

Constellium (NYSE: CSTM) is a global sector leader that develops innovative, value added aluminium products for a broad scope of markets and applications, including aerospace, automotive and packaging. Constellium generated €5.9 billion of revenue in 2019.

Ryan Wentling – Investor Relations
Phone: +1 443 988 0600
Investor-relations@constellium.com

Delphine Dahan-Kocher – External Communications
Phone: +1 (443) 420 7860
delphine.dahan-kocher@constellium.com

Constellium’s earnings materials for the third quarter ended September 30, 2020, are also available on the company’s website (www.constellium.com).


CONSOLIDATED INCOME STATEMENT (UNAUDITED)

  Three months ended
September 30,
 Nine months ended
September 30,
(in millions of Euros) 2020 2019 2020 2019
         
Revenue 1,172  1,461  3,640  4,535 
Cost of sales (1,052) (1,316) (3,298) (4,064)
Gross profit 120  145  342  471 
Selling and administrative expenses (55) (66) (178) (204)
Research and development expenses (9) (12) (29) (36)
Restructuring costs (2) (1) (13) (2)
Other gains and losses - net 10  (15) (53) (29)
Income from operations 64  51  69  200 
Finance costs - net (37) (46) (124) (135)
Share of income of joint-ventures       5 
Income / (loss) before income tax 27  5  (55) 70 
Income tax (expense) / benefit (7) (4) 12  (28)
Net income / (loss) 20  1  (43) 42 
Income / (loss) attributable to:        
Equity holders of Constellium 19    (45) 39 
Non-controlling interests 1  1  2  3 
Net income / (loss) 20  1  (43) 42 


Earnings per share attributable to the equity holders of Constellium, in euros per share        
Basic 0.13  0.00  (0.33) 0.29 
Diluted 0.13  0.00  (0.33) 0.28 
         
Weighted average shares, in thousands       
Basic 139,209  137,131  139,032  136,609 
Diluted 143,002  141,911  139,032  141,911 


CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME / (LOSS) (UNAUDITED)

  Three months ended
September 30,
 Nine months ended
September 30,
(in millions of Euros) 2020 2019 2020 2019
         
Net income / (loss) 20  1  (43) 42 
Other comprehensive loss        
Items that will not be reclassified subsequently to the Unaudited Interim Consolidated Income Statement        
Remeasurement on post-employment benefit obligations (12) (48) (53) (110)
Income tax on remeasurement on post-employment benefit obligations 3  8  12  23 
Items that may be reclassified subsequently to the Unaudited Interim Consolidated Income Statement        
Cash flow hedges 12  (10) 12  (15)
Net investment hedges       4 
Income tax on hedges (4) 3  (4) 5 
Currency translation differences (8) 5  (10) 4 
Other comprehensive loss (9) (42) (43) (89)
Total comprehensive income / (loss) 11  (41) (86) (47)
Attributable to:        
Equity holders of Constellium 10  (42) (88) (50)
Non-controlling interests 1  1  2  3 
Total comprehensive income / (loss) 11  (41) (86) (47)


CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION (UNAUDITED)

(in millions of Euros) At September 30, 2020  At December 31, 2019 
     
Assets    
Current assets    
Cash and cash equivalents 432  184 
Trade receivables and other 467  474 
Inventories 607  670 
Other financial assets 23  22 
  1,529  1,350 
Non-current assets    
Property, plant and equipment 1,971  2,056 
Goodwill 437  455 
Intangible assets 64  70 
Investments accounted for under the equity method 1  1 
Deferred income tax assets 218  185 
Trade receivables and other 67  60 
Other financial assets 8  7 
  2,766  2,834 
Total Assets 4,295  4,184 
     
Liabilities    
Current liabilities    
Trade payables and other 1,010  999 
Borrowings 85  201 
Other financial liabilities 43  35 
Income tax payable 20  14 
Provisions 27  23 
  1,185  1,272 
Non-current liabilities    
Trade payables and other 29  21 
Borrowings 2,371  2,160 
Other financial liabilities 31  23 
Pension and other post-employment benefit obligations 714  670 
Provisions 98  99 
Deferred income tax liabilities 27  24 
  3,270  2,997 
Total Liabilities 4,455  4,269 
     
Equity    
Share capital 3  3 
Share premium 420  420 
Retained deficit and other reserves (596) (519)
Equity attributable to equity holders of Constellium (173) (96)
Non controlling interests 13  11 
Total Equity (160) (85)
     
Total Equity and Liabilities 4,295  4,184 


CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN EQUITY (UNAUDITED)

(in millions of Euros) Share
capital
 Share
premium
 Re-
measurement
 Cash flow
hedges
 Foreign
currency
translation
reserve
 Other
reserves
 Retained
losses
 Total Equity
holders of
Constellium
 Non-
controlling
interests
 Total
equity
At January 1, 2020 3  420  (177) (10) 4  53  (389) (96) 11  (85)
Net (loss) / income             (45) (45) 2  (43)
Other comprehensive (loss) / income     (41) 8  (10)     (43)   (43)
Total comprehensive (loss) / income     (41) 8  (10)   (45) (88) 2  (86)
Transactions with equity holders                    
Share-based compensation           11    11    11 
At September 30, 2020 3  420  (218) (2) (6) 64  (434) (173) 13  (160)
                     
(in millions of Euros) Share
capital
 Share
premium
 Re-
measurement
 Cash flow
hedges
and net
investment
hedges
 Foreign
currency
translation
reserve
 Other
reserves
 Retained
losses
 Total Equity
holders of
Constellium
 Non-
controlling
interests
 Total
equity
At January 1, 2019 3  420  (129) (8) 3  37  (448) (122) 8  (114)
Net income             39  39  3  42 
Other comprehensive (loss) / income     (87) (6) 4      (89)   (89)
Total comprehensive (loss) / income     (87) (6) 4    39  (50) 3  (47)
Transactions with equity holders                    
Share-based compensation           12    12    12 
Transactions with non-controlling interests                    
At September 30, 2019 3  420  (216) (14) 7  49  (409) (160) 11   (149)


CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS (UNAUDITED)

  Three months ended
September 30,
 Nine months ended
September 30,
(in millions of Euros) 2020 2019 2020 2019
Net income / (loss) 20  1  (43) 42 
Adjustments        
Depreciation, amortization and impairment 73  66  210  183 
Finance costs - net 37  46  124  135 
Income Tax expense / (benefit) 7  4  (12) 28 
Share of income of joint-ventures       (5)
Unrealized (gains) / losses on derivatives - net and from remeasurement of monetary assets and liabilities - net (11) 5  (2) (12)
Losses on disposal 2    2  2 
Other - net 3  3  16  9 
         
Interest paid (45) (54) (118) (132)
Income tax paid (7) 8  11  (3)
Change in trade working capital        
Inventories 15  34  50  58 
Trade receivables (19) 12  (12) (17)
Trade payables 38  (29) 20  75 
Margin calls       5 
Change in provisions and pension obligations (8) (3) (6) (18)
Other working capital 8  (13) 23  (10)
Net cash flows from operating activities 111  80  263  340 
         
Purchases of property, plant and equipment (36) (50) (134) (180)
Acquisition of subsidiaries net of cash acquired       (83)
Proceeds from disposals, net of cash     1  1 
Other investing activities   1    (3)
Net cash flows used in investing activities (36) (49) (133) (265)
         
Proceeds from issuance of Senior Notes     290   
Repayment of Senior Notes   (100) (200) (100)
Proceeds from French loan     180   
Proceeds from Swiss credit facility     18   
Lease repayments (8) (9) (25) (79)
(Repayments) / proceeds from U.S. revolving credit facility and other loans (8) 12  (132) 88 
Payment of deferred financing costs     (9)  
Transactions with non-controlling interests       (2)
Other financing activities (2) 3    3 
Net cash flows from / (used in) financing activities (18) (94) 122  (90)
         
Net increase / (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents 57  (63) 252  (15)
Cash and cash equivalents - beginning of period / year 378  213  184  164 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents (3) 2  (4) 3 
Cash and cash equivalents - end of period 432  152  432  152 


ADJUSTED EBITDA BY SEGMENT

  Three months ended
September 30,
 Nine months ended
September 30,
(in millions of Euros) 2020 2019 2020 2019
P&ARP 85  72  209  210 
A&T 10  43  93  159 
AS&I 33  26  66  85 
H&C (2) (2) (14) (13)
Adjusted EBITDA 126  139  354  441 


SHIPMENTS AND REVENUE BY PRODUCT LINE

  Three months ended
September 30,
 Nine months ended
September 30,
(in k metric tons) 2020 2019 2020 2019
Packaging rolled products 192  211  584  630 
Automotive rolled products 60  56  145  178 
Specialty and other thin-rolled products 6  10  19  34 
Aerospace rolled products 15  28  64  89 
Transportation, industry, defense and other rolled products 21  29  76  97 
Automotive extruded products 31  31  77  92 
Other extruded products 29  30  92  101 
Total shipments 354  395  1,057  1,221 
         
  Three months ended
September 30,
 Nine months ended
September 30,
(in millions of Euros) 2020 2019 2020 2019
Packaging rolled products 463  560  1,443  1,676 
Automotive rolled products 185  191  466  630 
Specialty and other thin-rolled products 24  38  80  132 
Aerospace rolled products 110  201  475  630 
Transportation, industry, defense and other rolled products 92  150  336  482 
Automotive extruded products 187  202  482  589 
Other extruded products 117  134  386  438 
Other and inter-segment eliminations (6) (15) (28) (42)
Total revenue 1,172  1,461  3,640  4,535 


NON-GAAP MEASURES

Reconciliation of net income to Adjusted EBITDA (a non-GAAP measure)

  Three months ended
September 30,
 Nine months ended
September 30,
(in millions of Euros) 2020 2019 2020 2019
Net income / (loss)  20  1  (43) 42 
Income tax expense / (benefit) 7  4  (12) 28 
Income / (loss) before income tax 27  5  (55) 70 
Finance costs - net 37  46  124  135 
Share of income of joint-ventures       (5)
Income from operations 64  51  69  200 
Depreciation and amortization 64  66  196  183 
Impairment of assets 9    14   
Restructuring costs 2  1  13  2 
Unrealized (gains) / losses on derivatives (9) 4  1  (13)
Unrealized exchange (gains) / losses from remeasurement of monetary assets and liabilities – net (2)   (1)  
Losses on pension plans amendments   1  2  1 
Share-based compensation costs 3  5  11  12 
Metal price lag (A) (7) 9  33  40 
Start-up and development costs (B) 1  3  5  8 
Losses on disposals 2    2  2 
Bowling Green one-time costs related to the acquisition (C)       6 
Other (D) (1) (1) 9   
Adjusted EBITDA 126  139  354  441 

(A) Metal price lag represents the financial impact of the timing difference between when aluminium prices included within Constellium Revenue are established and when aluminium purchase prices included in Cost of sales are established. The Group accounts for inventory using a weighted average price basis and this adjustment aims to remove the effect of volatility in LME prices. The calculation of the Group metal price lag adjustment is based on an internal standardized methodology applied at each of Constellium’s manufacturing sites and is primarily calculated as the average value of product recorded in inventory, which approximates the spot price in the market, less the average value transferred out of inventory, which is the weighted average of the metal element of cost of sales, based on the quantity sold in the period.
(B) Start-up and development costs in the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 were related to new projects in our AS&I operating segment.
(C) Bowling Green one-time costs related to the acquisition in the nine months ended September 30, 2019, was the non-cash reversal of the inventory step-up.
(D) Other in the nine months ended September 30, 2020 includes i) €4 million of procurement penalties and termination fees incurred because of the Group's inability to fulfill certain commitments due to the Covid-19 pandemic and ii) a €5 million loss resulting from the discontinuation of hedge accounting for certain forecasted sales that were determined to be no longer expected to occur in light of the Covid-19 pandemic effects.


Reconciliation of net cash flows from operating activities to Free Cash Flow (a non-GAAP measure)

  Three months ended
September 30,
 Nine months ended
September 30,
(in millions of Euros) 2020 2019 2020 2019
Net cash flows from operating activities 111  80  263  340 
Purchases of property, plant and equipment (36) (50) (134) (180)
Other investing activities   1    (3)
Free Cash Flow 75  31  129  157 


Reconciliation of borrowings to Net debt (a non-GAAP measure)

(in millions of Euros) At September 30, 2020  At December 31, 2019 
Borrowings 2,456  2,361 
Fair value of cross currency basis swaps, net of margin calls 26  6 
Cash and cash equivalents (432) (184)
Net debt 2,050  2,183 


Non-GAAP measures

In addition to the results reported in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”), this press release includes information regarding certain financial measures which are not prepared in accordance with IFRS (“non-GAAP measures”). The non-GAAP measures used in this press release are: Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA per metric ton, Free Cash Flow and Net debt. Reconciliations to the most directly comparable IFRS financial measures are presented in the schedules to this press release. We believe these non-GAAP measures are important supplemental measures of our operating and financial performance. By providing these measures, together with the reconciliations, we believe we are enhancing investors’ understanding of our business, our results of operations and our financial position, as well as assisting investors in evaluating the extent to which we are executing our strategic initiatives. However, these non-GAAP financial measures supplement our IFRS disclosures and should not be considered an alternative to the IFRS measures and may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies.

In considering the financial performance of the business, management and our chief operational decision maker, as defined by IFRS, analyze the primary financial performance measure of Adjusted EBITDA in all of our business segments. The most directly comparable IFRS measure to Adjusted EBITDA is our net income or loss for the period. We believe Adjusted EBITDA, as defined below, is useful to investors and is used by our management for measuring profitability because it excludes the impact of certain non-cash charges, such as depreciation, amortization, impairment and unrealized gains and losses on derivatives as well as items that do not impact the day-to-day operations and that management in many cases does not directly control or influence. Therefore, such adjustments eliminate items which have less bearing on our core operating performance.

Adjusted EBITDA measures are frequently used by securities analysts, investors and other interested parties in their evaluation of Constellium and in comparison to other companies, many of which present an Adjusted EBITDA-related performance measure when reporting their results.

Adjusted EBITDA is defined as income / (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes, results from joint ventures, net finance costs, other expenses and depreciation and amortization as adjusted to exclude restructuring costs, impairment charges, unrealized gains or losses on derivatives and on foreign exchange differences on transactions which do not qualify for hedge accounting, metal price lag, share based compensation expense, effects of certain purchase accounting adjustments, start-up and development costs or acquisition, integration and separation costs, certain incremental costs and other exceptional, unusual or generally non-recurring items.

Adjusted EBITDA is the measure of performance used by management in evaluating our operating performance, in preparing internal forecasts and budgets necessary for managing our business and, specifically in relation to the exclusion of the effect of favorable or unfavorable metal price lag, this measure allows management and the investor to assess operating results and trends without the impact of our accounting for inventories. We use the weighted average cost method in accordance with IFRS which leads to the purchase price paid for metal impacting our cost of goods sold and therefore profitability in the period subsequent to when the related sales price impacts our revenues. Management believes this measure also provides additional information used by our lending facilities providers with respect to the ongoing performance of our underlying business activities. Historically, we have used Adjusted EBITDA in calculating our compliance with financial covenants under certain of our loan facilities.

Adjusted EBITDA is not a presentation made in accordance with IFRS, is not a measure of financial condition, liquidity or profitability and should not be considered as an alternative to profit or loss for the period, revenues or operating cash flows determined in accordance with IFRS.

Free Cash Flow is defined as net cash flow from operating activities less capital expenditure, equity contributions and loans to joint ventures and other investing activities. Management believes that Free Cash Flow is a useful measure of the net cash flow generated or used by the business as it takes into account both the cash generated or consumed by operating activities, including working capital, and the capital expenditure requirements of the business. However, Free Cash Flow is not a presentation made in accordance with IFRS and should not be considered as an alternative to operating cash flows determined in accordance with IFRS. Free Cash Flow has certain inherent limitations, including the fact that it does not represent residual cash flows available for discretionary spending, notably because it does not reflect principal repayments required in connection with our debt or capital lease obligations.

Net debt is defined as borrowings plus or minus the fair value of cross currency basis swaps net of margin calls less cash and cash equivalents and cash pledged for the issuance of guarantees. Management believes that Net debt is a useful measure of indebtedness because it takes into account the cash and cash equivalent balances held by the Company as well as the total external debt of the Company. Net debt is not a presentation made in accordance with IFRS, and should not be considered as an alternative to borrowings determined in accordance with IFRS.

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